Posted: February 1st, 2023

Intestinal Absorption of Triglyceride Analysis

Triglyceride is an essential natural lipid, but its extreme consumption in the diet can cause hypercholesterolemia and obesity. The intestinal absorption of triglyceride usually take place in the small intestine, but it happens in a sequence of regular and interconnected stages such as emulsification, fatty acid ester bonds hydrolysis through distinct esterase’s, aqueous dispersion of lipolytic products in bile micelles, and then absorption largely in the proximal jejunum, however likewise in further distal sections of the small intestine. Each of these consecutive phases of intestinal lipid absorption could be prevented by drugs or dietary elements and therefore are likely medical objectives for causing triglyceride malabsorption.

Absorption of Lipids
Bile acids promote emulsification, which is the initial step in lipid absorption. The majority of dietary lipids are triglycerides, made of a glycerol spine including all carbon joined to fatty acids. Foods usually have sterols such as cholesterol, phospholipids, and several secondary lipids, such as fat-soluble vitamins.

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To get absorbed, triglyceride requires two processes to happen, which are as follows:

Huge summation of dietary triglycerides, which are practically indissoluble in aqueous conditions, should be disintegrated materially and kept in exclusion; it is known as emulsification.

Triglyceride molecules should be digested enzymatically to produce fatty acids and monoglycerides therefore, they can effectively disperse into the enterocyte.

The main factors in both changes are pancreatic lipase and bile acids, and they are infused with the chyme and work in the lumen of the small intestines. Bile acids are likewise required to solubilize different lipids, like cholesterol.

Lipolysis is defined as the chemical conversion of triglycerides as glycerol and fatty acids. Triglycerides are found in adipose tissue cells and are used for storing energy that is used at the time of exercise and fasting. Insulin is the key hormone that controls lipolysis. This process happens when insulin function is minimum. Lipolysis is also induced by the actions of other hormones such as adrenaline, growth hormone, glucagon, atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and cortisol.

There are two main lipolysis enzymes as follows:

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL)

Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)

Regardless of doing the equivalent role, the enzymes essentially work for apparently conflicting causes at the adipose level. In the maintained position, LPL on the endothelium of arteries divides lipoprotein triglycerides into fatty acids to be caught up into adipocytes to store them as triglycerides, where they are originally employed for energy composition. HSL is an essential enzyme in adipose tissue, and in the body, it is also the main storage section of triglycerides. HSL movement is progressed by epinephrine and glucagon and reduced by insulin. Hence, in hypoglycemia or a “fight-or-flight-or-freeze”, triglycerides in the adipose are split, freeing fatty acids into a flow that later chains with the protein albumin.

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