Posted: May 22nd, 2023

To attain the maximum deflection of the ions

To attain the maximum deflection of the ions, a strong magnetic and electric field is applied on the ions to deflect those ions with maximum energy. Typically, the radius of deflection is characterized by the relation, n>1. The trajectories of the electrons have to be well established and defined. Observations indicate that the ions move in a spiral manner when subjected to the deflecting fields as they move out of the separator. It is important to harvest an optimal number of ions during the deflection process by designing the cyclotron to minimize the number of interruptions on the ions. However, it is not in the scope of this study to evaluate the design criteria for capturing the ions based on the design of any cyclotron (Vorobiev &York, 4).

Observations based on the orbits of streaming particles indicate that they occur in large orbits and the separation can be calculated based on the mathematical relation shown below:

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R =(R/2) (2qVo sin Ɵ s/T).

Typical Examples of Cyclotrons

Many technologies have been developed to demonstrate how cyclotrons work. A typical example of a cyclotron that may acts as a learning point on a practical basis is the BEST 35 CYCLOTRON. Typically, the cyclotron is designed to accommodate negative hydrogen ions only (H–). It is also designed to operate with an extraction beam voltage which is between 15 and 32 MeV.

A number of characteristics inherently define the characteristics of the machine. These include the main magnet which is part of the machine. Typically the architecture of the main magnet enables it to accommodate a four sector coil current with a capacity equivalent to 9800AT. On the other hand, rf resonators constitute a connective frequency of 70Hz with a dee voltage equivalent to 50Kv. In addition to that, the machine oscillates with an oscillatory harmonic equivalent to 4. One characteristic of the ion source is that the ions are externally injected with an injection line that operates with a current in excess of 15 mA. Technically, the particles move in a spiral path to the axial injector.

On the other hand, a vacuum acts as the source of the ions that are extracted using a simultaneous dual beam with beam lines following a 2 way and 3 way switching magnet.

Another type of cyclotron in commercial use is the BEST 14 CYCLOTRON. Typically, the cyclotron is designed to operate at a 14MeV capacity. It operates on a fixed energy multi-foil carousel. The cyclotron operates by integrating internal and external sources of ions. One additional benefit or characteristic of the machine is that it can be upgraded to accommodate ions from different sources depending on the nature of the environment under consideration. The flexibility of the machine is based on projections which increase in strengths based on the dunes and the energy of the beam.

One general characteristic of the system is its control system. The control system is characterized by a real time mechanism that allows users to control the functionality of the machine and to allow real time communication of safety signals. Typically, the system is computerized and input and outputs are communicated through a computerized system. A software mechanism provides a link to the system and provides a reliable interface between the system and the user. Cyclotrons play different roles in different industries. One such industry is the hadron therapy.

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