Posted: February 1st, 2023

Urine concentration of marine mammals

The concentration of Urine of marine mammals in general (with a few exceptions) do not use seawater as a common behavior, they can produce urine with a greater osmolality than the water of the sea. Also, mammals that live in freshwater habitats can concentrate their urine for counteracting hyperosmotic environments, suggesting that marine mammals, more likely to be found in freshwater than marine environments, retain their ability to concentrate urine. A positive correlation between plasma osmolality and urine in marine mammals is observed which means urine osmolality increases in response with increased plasma osmolality. Marine mammals were originally believed to drink seawater because the osmolarity of their urine is higher than seawater, and it is believed that their urine consists primarily of sodium and chloride ions. For marine mammals to receive a net positive advantage in solute-free water after consuming seawater, they must release sodium and chloride ions in higher concentrations than in the water.

Metabolic water and drinking:

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Water balance in ocean us kept up because of pre-shaped water present in their eating routine. Marine well evolved creatures are vertebrates living in the water climate. whose presence relies upon the seas and other marine biological systems. This incorporates creatures, for example, whales seals, manatees polar bears, and ocean otters. They are a casual gathering that is just worried about their reliance on the marine climate for endurance and food. The variation of marine vertebrates to an oceanic way of life shifts significantly from one animal categories to another. Sirenians and cetaceans live in water and are completely oceanic. Ocean lions and seals are semi-amphibian; They live the vast majority of their time in the water however should get back to land for fundamental exercises like rearing, mating, and shedding.

Marine mammals have a variety of anatomical and Physiological properties to help them meet the unique challenges of aquatic life. Some of these characteristics are specific to species. There are also many features both anatomical and physiological which help marine mammals to live in the marine aquatic environment. Some of these features are very species-specific. Marine mammals have developed several functions for efficient movements, such as torpedo-shaped bodies to reduce air resistance.

Marine mammals specialize in thermoregulation using circulation correction with thick or fat hair (counter-current exchange).

Blubber is present on the skin of marine animals which is used for insulation.

Tail fluke and dorsal fin are for propulsion and balance.

Reduced attachment and large size are to prevent heat loss.

Modified limbs for locomotion and control

Marine mammals can dive for a long time.

Whales and Pinnipeds have large, complex vascular systems that store oxygen to aid deep dives.

Other important reservoirs are blood, spleen, and muscle all of which can hold high levels of oxygen.

Posted: February 1st, 2023

Urine concentration of marine mammals

Maintaining Soil texture Physical characteristics of soil like salinity and pH of the soil with good soil tilth should be maintained in order to suit the crop. pH is an amount of the sourness of the soil. Growth in most crops is at higher rate when the soil has a logarithmic hydrogen ion concentration (pH) values lying between 6.2 and 6.8. Plants can absorb nutrients at this pH. For some crops, lime is used to neutralize acidity.

b) Improving Soil fertility The organic constituents of the soil comprise of the decomposition products and the residues of animals and plants. Soil organic matter gives the plant, all essential nutrients as it decays, thus refining soil lushness. The practice of applying manures also helps to retain the organic nature of the soil. This promotes soil fertility.

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c) Maintaining soil structure Good soil structure holds up sufficient water for plant uptake via the root due to variable pore space size. Healthy soil does not exhibit clogging of water due to its rapid water draining property provided by pore size variability even when it experiences ample amount of rainfall. Organic matter retains the structure and properties of good soil and also work in enhancing soil water holding capacity along with aeration and stimulation of soil particle agitation.

d) Nutrient recycling Adding a large population of beneficial microorganisms helps nutrient recycling of soil. Soil microbes decompose organic matter, maintain soil structure and biological suppression of plant pests. Manure is extremely adjustable nutrient basis. Adding nourishment and compost to soil can upsurge biological matter proportion as well as enhance nutrient availability to plant. Poultry manure and dairy manure are rich in Nitrogen and Phosphorus foundations.

e) Soil Conservation The main goal of soil conservation is preventing soil from erosion and maintaining the fertility of the soil. Soil conservation includes a wide range of techniques which help in preventing soil erosion and maintaining the structure of good soil.

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